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Course Notes: Reshaping Data with pandas
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    Course Notes

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    # Add your code snippets here
    fifa_mean = fifa_players.pivot_table(index=['nationality', 'club'], 
    # Specify that wide columns have a suffix containing words
    the_code_long = pd.wide_to_long(books_brown, 
                                    stubnames=['language', 'publisher'], 
                                    i=['author', 'title'], 
    # Print the_code_long
    # Modify books_hunger by resetting the index without dropping it
    books_hunger.reset_index(drop=False, inplace=True)
    # Reshape using title and language as index, feature as new name, publication and page as prefix separated by space and ending in a word
    publication_features = pd.wide_to_long(books_hunger, 
                                           stubnames=["publication", "page"], 
                                           i=["title", "language"], 
                                           sep=" ", 
    # Print publication_features
    # Concatenate the title and subtitle separated by "and" surrounded by spaces
    hp_books['full_title'] = hp_books['title']['subtitle'], sep =" and ") 
    # Split the authors into writer and illustrator columns
    hp_books[['writer', 'illustrator']] = hp_books['authors'].str.split('/', expand=True)
    # Melt goodreads and amazon columns into a single column
    hp_melt = hp_books.melt(id_vars=["full_title", "writer"], 
                            value_vars=["goodreads", "amazon"], 
    # Print hp_melt
    # Split main_title by a colon and assign it to two columns named title and subtitle 
    books_sh[['title', 'subtitle']] = books_sh['main_title'].str.split(':', expand=True)
    # Split version by a space and assign the second element to the column named volume 
    books_sh['volume'] = books_sh['version'].str.split(' ').str.get(1)
    # Drop the main_title and version columns modifying books_sh
    books_sh.drop(['main_title', 'version'], axis=1, inplace=True)
    # Reshape using title, subtitle and volume as index, name feature the new variable from columns starting with number, separated by undescore and ending in words 
    sh_long = pd.wide_to_long(books_sh, stubnames="number", i=["title", "subtitle", "volume"], 
                      j="feature", sep="_", suffix="\w+")
    # Print sh_long 

    Stacking/Unstacking Dataframes

    # Predefined list to use as index
    new_index = [['California', 'California', 'New York', 'Ohio'], 
                 ['Los Angeles', 'San Francisco', 'New York', 'Cleveland']]
    # Create a multi-level index using predefined new_index
    churn_new = pd.MultiIndex.from_arrays(new_index, names=['state', 'city'])
    # Assign the new index to the churn index
    churn.index = churn_new
    # Reshape by stacking churn DataFrame
    churn_stack = churn.stack()
    # Print churn_stack
    # Set state and city as index modifying the DataFrame
    churn.set_index(['state', 'city'], inplace=True)
    # Reshape by stacking the second level
    churn_stack = churn.stack(level=1)
    # Print churn_stack
    # Stack churn by the feature column level
    churn_feature = churn.stack(level="feature")
    # Print churn_feature
    # Sort the index in descending order
    churn_time = churn.unstack(level='time').sort_index(ascending=False)
    # Print churn_time
    # Unstack churn by type level
    churn_type = churn.unstack(level="type")
    # Stack the resulting DataFrame using the first column level
    churn_final = churn_type.stack(level=0)
    # Print churn_type
    # Switch the first and third row index levels in churn
    churn_swap = churn.swaplevel(0, 2)
    # Reshape by unstacking the last row level 
    churn_unstack = churn_swap.unstack(level=-1)
    # Print churn_unstack
    # Unstack the first and second row level of churn
    churn_unstack = churn.unstack(level=[0, 1])
    # Stack the resulting DataFrame using plan and year
    churn_py = churn_unstack.stack(['plan', 'year'])
    # Switch the first and second column levels
    churn_switch = churn_py.swaplevel(0, 1, axis=1)
    # Print churn_switch
    # Unstack churn level and fill missing values with zero
    churn = churn.unstack(level="churn", fill_value=0)
    # Sort by descending voice mail plan and ascending international plan
    churn_sorted = churn.sort_index(level=["voice_mail_plan", "international_plan"], 
                              ascending=[False, True])
    # Print final DataFrame and observe pattern
    # Stack the level scope without dropping rows with missing values
    churn_stack = churn.stack(level="scope", dropna=False)
    # Fill the resulting missing values with zero
    churn_fill = churn_stack.fillna(0)
    # Print churn_fill


    # Stack the first level, get sum, and unstack the second level
    obesity_sum = obesity.stack(level=0).sum(axis=1).unstack(level=1)
    # Print obesity_max
    # Stack country level, group by country and get the mean
    obesity_mean = obesity.stack(level="country").groupby("country").mean()
    # Print obesity_mean
    # Stack country level, group by country and get the median 
    obesity_median = obesity.stack(level="country").groupby("country").median()
    # Print obesity_median

    Transforming a list-like column with explode()

    # Explode the values of bounds to a separate row
    obesity_bounds = obesity['bounds'].explode()
    # Merge obesity_bounds with country and perc_obesity columns of obesity using the indexes
    obesity_final = obesity[["country", "perc_obesity"]].merge(obesity_bounds, 
    # Print obesity_final
    #Faster method:
    # Transform the list-like column named bounds  
    obesity_explode = obesity.explode("bounds")
    # Modify obesity_explode by resetting the index 
    obesity_explode.reset_index(drop=True, inplace=True)
    # Print obesity_explode
    # Assign the result of the split to the bounds column
    obesity_split = obesity.assign(bounds=obesity['bounds'].str.split('-'))
    # Print obesity
    # Transform the column bounds in the obesity DataFrame
    obesity_split = obesity.assign(bounds=obesity['bounds'].str.split('-')).explode("bounds")
    # Print obesity_split

    Reading nested data into a DataFrame (i.e. JSON)