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CASE Statements in PostgreSQL

In this tutorial, you'll learn how to write conditional queries in PostgreSQL using the PostgreSQL CASE conditional expression.

Conditional expressions are one of the most fundamental elements of any programming paradigm. Common conditional expressions include if-else blocks and switch cases. You can formulate conditional expressions in PostgreSQL using WHEN-THEN case which is very similar to if-else blocks. In this tutorial, you will learn how to do this.

Before you start writing condition queries, it is important that you set up a local PostgreSQL database. You will do this in the first section of this tutorial.

Note: To be able to follow along with this tutorial you need to know the basics of SQL and PostgreSQL. Feel free to refresh the basics with the following resources:

Setting up a PostgreSQL database locally

You can use this backup file and restore it in your PostgreSQL server. If you want to know how to do this, you can follow this article. After you successfully restore the backup, you should be able to see these tables in the database -

  • countries
  • route_table
  • station_table
  • train_table

This tutorial, however, only uses the countries table. Feel free explore the tables provided in the database backup. Also, you may want to form your own databases and tables. You should have a table (populated with the details about different countries around the globe) by now if you restored the database backup. Let's now explore the countries table very briefly.

Exploring the countries table very briefly

After restoring the database, you can view the table in the pgAdmin interface which comes with the default installation of PostgreSQL. Upon running a simple SELECT statement, you get to know about the columns, their data-types and also the rows the table is containing -

The table contains details about a total of 206 different countries from various regions of the world. How many regions exactly? The below query should give you the answer to the question.

SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT(region)) from countries;

It turns out that there are 23 different regions covered in this table such as Western Europe, Polynesia, the Middle East and so on. You can explore the table with your own quick questions, and along the way, you may find out interesting facts. Let's now see the anatomy of a basic PostgreSQL CASE.

Introduction to PostgreSQL CASE

The following describes the general form of a PostgreSQL case with WHEN-THEN construct -

CASE
     WHEN condition_1  THEN result_1
     WHEN condition_2  THEN result_2
     ...
     ELSE  result_n
END

Here are some critical points that you should keep in mind while constructing CASEs in PostgreSQL:

  • Each condition is a boolean expression and based on its output the result is chosen. If all the expressions corresponding to WHEN are evaluated to be False, then the result respective to the ELSE part is shown. In case, you don't specify the ELSE part; the query will return null.

  • A condition is generally applied on a column that is present in the table you are operating on. Conditional query constructs like the above are typically done with SELECT statements. Keep in mind that, the column must be present in the SELECT statement of your query, on which you are specifying the boolean expressions (in CASE). But when you are using CASE in pair with a where clause, you need not to follow this (more on this later).

  • The data-type of the results has to be uniform. You cannot return a string in result_1 and an integer in result_2 and so on.

Let's dig into some examples now.

Writing PostgreSQL CASEs

Let's start simple. You will now write a CASE to group the countries with respect to the independence year. Independence years are recorded in the indep_year column. Let's say you have three groups of independence years of the countries which you need to follow. You will create three groups of independence years for this -

  • Before 1900 (indep_year < 1900)
  • Between 1900 and 1930 (indep_year <= 1930)
  • After 1930 (indep_year > 1930)

The final result of the query should contain the following columns -

  • name (of the country)
  • continent (to which the country belongs)
  • indep_year
  • And the independence years' group that you will create. Let's name that as indep_year_group.

Let's now write the query -

SELECT name, continent, indep_year,
    CASE WHEN indep_year < 1900 THEN 'before 1900'
         WHEN indep_year <= 1930 THEN 'between 1900 and 1930'
         ELSE 'after 1930' END
         AS indep_year_group
FROM countries
ORDER BY indep_year_group;

(The query is inspired from DataCamp's Joining Data in SQL course.)

Upon executing the query, you will see many countries like Palestine, Puerto Rico, etc. for which no independence year is provided in the table. Hence they got between 1900 and 1930 group.

PostgreSQL CASEs can have multiple conditions. There are a handful of entries in the table where the name of country and capital is the same. You can add this to your previously constructed CASE -

SELECT name, continent, indep_year,
    CASE WHEN (indep_year < 1900) AND (countries.name = countries.capital) THEN 'before 1900 and capital same'
         WHEN indep_year <= 1930 AND (countries.name = countries.capital) THEN 'between 1900 and 1930 and capital same'
         ELSE 'after 1930_and_no_same_capital' END
         AS indep_year_group
FROM countries
ORDER BY indep_year_group;

Another exciting thing about CASEs is that you can pair them with aggregate functions like SUM(). To implement a CASE with the aggregate function SUM(), you will need a different table where this might be a good idea. Let's create a simple table named student_grades having the following columns and data-types -

  • student_name (string)
  • student_stream (string)
  • student_grade (character)

The following query creates the table for you -

CREATE TABLE student_grades
(student_name character varying,
student_stream character varying,
student_grade character);

Let's insert some records into the table now. You can do this using a few INSERT statements. Let's say after the insertions, the table student_grades now has the following records -

Now, you will write a CASE to get the sum of the students that belong to certain grade groups. As you can see, according to the instances of the table, there are three distinct grades - A, B and C. The conditional query should return an output similar to the following -

The query for this -

SELECT
 SUM (
 CASE
 WHEN student_grade = 'A' THEN
 1
 ELSE
 0
 END
 ) AS "High Scoring",
 SUM (
 CASE
 WHEN student_grade = 'B' THEN
 1
 ELSE
 0
 END
 ) AS "Mid Scoring",
 SUM (
 CASE
 WHEN student_grade = 'C' THEN
 1
 ELSE
 0
 END
 ) AS "Low Scoring"
FROM
 student_grades;

This is how you can pair up CASE with aggregate functions to come up with interesting facts about the data.

Conclusion and further reading

That is all for this tutorial. In this tutorial, you learned how to incorporate if-then like conditioning into your SQL queries to come with interesting reportings. You worked through several examples to strengthen this skill. If you are looking for more challenging exercises, you should take the following DataCamp courses on SQL -

Feel free to let me know your questions on this tutorial via the Comments section.

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