Tutorials
sql
+2

Getting Started With MySQL In Python

In this tutorial, you'll learn how to install MySQL, create databases, and create tables, along with much more.

Prerequisites

  • Python Data Types, Control Structures, Loops, etc., If you're new to Python learn Datacamp's free Intro to Python for Data Science course.

  • SQL Basics. If you don't know SQL, take the Datacamp's free SQL course.

Table Of Contents

  1. Installing MySQL  
  2. Connecting And Creating
    2.1. Creating Databases
    2.2. Creating Tables
    2.3. Primary Key  
  3. Inserting Data  
  4. Select Data  
  5. Where  
  6. Order By  
  7. Delete  
  8. Update

Note:

  • This tutorial is not meant to teach you complete SQL syntax or language.
  • This tutorial will teach you how you can work with MySQL in Python.

Procedure To Follow In Python To Work With MySQL

  1. Connect to the database.  
  2. Create an object for your database.  
  3. Execute the SQL query.  
  4. Fetch records from the result.  
  5. Informing the Database if you make any changes in the table.

1. Installing MySQL

MySQL is one of the most popular databases.

Download and install MySQL from the MySQL's official website. You need to install the MySQL server to follow this tutorial.

Next, you have to install mysql.connector for Python. We need mysql.connector to connect Python Script to the MySQL database. Download the mysql.connector from here and install it on your computer.

Now, check whether you have installed the mysql.connector correctly or not using the following code.

import mysql.connector

If the above code runs without any errors, then you have successfully installed mysql.connector, and it is ready to use.

2. Connecting And Creating

Now, we will connect to the database using username and password of MySQL. If you don't remember your username or password, create a new user with a password.

To create a new user refer to MySQL official documentation.

Now, connect to the database using your username and password.

## Connecting to the database

## importing 'mysql.connector' as mysql for convenient
import mysql.connector as mysql

## connecting to the database using 'connect()' method
## it takes 3 required parameters 'host', 'user', 'passwd'
db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms"
)

print(db) # it will print a connection object if everything is fine
<mysql.connector.connection_cext.CMySQLConnection object at 0x0000020C26A84C50>

That's it now you have connected to the MySQL database.

2.1. Creating Databases

Now, we will create a database with the name datacamp.

To create a database in MySQL, we use CREATE DATABASE database_name statement.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms"
)

## creating an instance of 'cursor' class which is used to execute the 'SQL' statements in 'Python'
cursor = db.cursor()

## creating a databse called 'datacamp'
## 'execute()' method is used to compile a 'SQL' statement
## below statement is used to create tha 'datacamp' database
cursor.execute("CREATE DATABASE datacamp")

If the database already exists you will get an error. Make sure that the database does not exist.

See all the databases present in MySQL using the following code.

To see all the databases we use SHOW DATABASES statement.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## executing the statement using 'execute()' method
cursor.execute("SHOW DATABASES")

## 'fetchall()' method fetches all the rows from the last executed statement
databases = cursor.fetchall() ## it returns a list of all databases present

## printing the list of databases
print(databases)

## showing one by one database
for database in databases:
    print(database)
[('datacamp',), ('information_schema',), ('mysql',), ('performance_schema',), ('sakila',), ('sys',), ('world',)]
('datacamp',)
('information_schema',)
('mysql',)
('performance_schema',)
('sakila',)
('sys',)
('world',)

2.2. Creating Tables

Creating tables in the database to store the information. Before creating tables, we have to select a database first.

Run the following code, to select datacamp database which we have created a minute before.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

The above code will execute with no errors if the database exists. Now, you have connected to the database called datacamp.

Use the CREATE TABLE table_name to create a table in the selected database.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## creating a table called 'users' in the 'datacamp' database
cursor.execute("CREATE TABLE users (name VARCHAR(255), user_name VARCHAR(255))")

You have successfully created the table users in the datacamp database. See all the tables present in the database using the SHOW TABLES statement.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## getting all the tables which are present in 'datacamp' database
cursor.execute("SHOW TABLES")

tables = cursor.fetchall() ## it returns list of tables present in the database

## showing all the tables one by one
for table in tables:
    print(table)
('users',)

2.3. Primary Key

Primary Key:- It is a unique value in the table. It helps to find each row uniquely in the table.

To create a Primary Key, we use the PRIMARY KEY statement while creating the table.

The statement INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY is used to identify each row uniquely with a number starting from 1.

Let's see how to create Primary Key for a table.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## first we have to 'drop' the table which has already created to create it again with the 'PRIMARY KEY'
## 'DROP TABLE table_name' statement will drop the table from a database
cursor.execute("DROP TABLE users")

## creating the 'users' table again with the 'PRIMARY KEY'
cursor.execute("CREATE TABLE users (id INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY, name VARCHAR(255), user_name VARCHAR(255))")

To see the table run the following code.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## 'DESC table_name' is used to get all columns information
cursor.execute("DESC users")

## it will print all the columns as 'tuples' in a list
print(cursor.fetchall())
[('id', 'int(11)', 'NO', 'PRI', None, 'auto_increment'), ('name', 'varchar(255)', 'YES', '', None, ''), ('user_name', 'varchar(255)', 'YES', '', None, '')]

Dropping Primary Key

We use ALTER TABLE table_name DROP column_name statement to drop the column with Primary Key.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## dropping the 'id' column
cursor.execute("ALTER TABLE users DROP id")

cursor.execute("DESC users")

print(cursor.fetchall())
[('name', 'varchar(255)', 'YES', '', None, ''), ('user_name', 'varchar(255)', 'YES', '', None, '')]

Now, we have dropped the Primary Key column. Let's see how we can add a column with Primary Key to the existing table.

Adding Primary Key

Adding Primary Key to the existing table. We use ALTER TABLE table_name ADD PRIMARY KEY(column_name) statement to add a Primary Key to a table.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## adding 'id' column to the 'users' table
## 'FIRST' keyword in the statement will add a column in the starting of the table
cursor.execute("ALTER TABLE users ADD COLUMN id INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY FIRST")

cursor.execute("DESC users")

print(cursor.fetchall())
[('id', 'int(11)', 'NO', 'PRI', None, 'auto_increment'), ('name', 'varchar(255)', 'YES', '', None, ''), ('user_name', 'varchar(255)', 'YES', '', None, '')]

We have added the column id to the users table.

3. Inserting Data

Inserting data into table to store it. Use INSERT INTO table_name (column_names) VALUES (data) statement to insert into the table.

Inserting A Single Row

Let's see how to insert a single row into the table.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "INSERT INTO users (name, user_name) VALUES (%s, %s)"
## storing values in a variable
values = ("Hafeez", "hafeez")

## executing the query with values
cursor.execute(query, values)

## to make final output we have to run the 'commit()' method of the database object
db.commit()

print(cursor.rowcount, "record inserted")
1 record inserted

The above code will insert one row into the users table.

Inserting Multiple Rows

Let's see how to insert multiple rows into the table.

To insert multiple rows into the table, we use the executemany() method. It takes a list of tuples containing the data as a second parameter and a query as the first argument.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "INSERT INTO users (name, user_name) VALUES (%s, %s)"
## storing values in a variable
values = [
    ("Peter", "peter"),
    ("Amy", "amy"),
    ("Michael", "michael"),
    ("Hennah", "hennah")
]

## executing the query with values
cursor.executemany(query, values)

## to make final output we have to run the 'commit()' method of the database object
db.commit()

print(cursor.rowcount, "records inserted")
4 records inserted

The above code inserted four records into the users table.

4. Select Data

To retrieve the data from a table we use, SELECT column_names FROM table_name statement.

Getting All Records From Table

To get all records from a table, we use * in place of column names. Let's get all the data from the users table which we inserted before.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "SELECT * FROM users"

## getting records from the table
cursor.execute(query)

## fetching all records from the 'cursor' object
records = cursor.fetchall()

## Showing the data
for record in records:
    print(record)
(1, 'Hafeez', 'hafeez')
(2, 'Peter', 'peter')
(3, 'Amy', 'amy')
(4, 'Michael', 'michael')
(5, 'Hennah', 'hennah')

Getting Some Columns

To select some columns from the table mention column name after the SELECT in the statement. Let's retrieve the username column from the users table.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "SELECT user_name FROM users"

## getting 'user_name' column from the table
cursor.execute(query)

## fetching all usernames from the 'cursor' object
usernames = cursor.fetchall()

## Showing the data
for username in usernames:
    print(username)
('hafeez',)
('peter',)
('amy',)
('michael',)
('hennah',)

You can also retrieve more than one column at a time as follows.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "SELECT name, user_name FROM users"

## getting 'name', 'user_name' columns from the table
cursor.execute(query)

## fetching all records from the 'cursor' object
data = cursor.fetchall()

## Showing the data
for pair in data:
    print(pair)
('Hafeez', 'hafeez')
('Peter', 'peter')
('Amy', 'amy')
('Michael', 'michael')
('Hennah', 'hennah')

5. Where

WHERE is used to select data on some condition. Now, we will select a record with id 5.

SELECT column_name FROM table_name WHERE condition statement will be used to retrieve the data on some condition.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 5"

## getting records from the table
cursor.execute(query)

## fetching all records from the 'cursor' object
records = cursor.fetchall()

## Showing the data
for record in records:
    print(record)
(5, 'Hennah', 'hennah')

You can specify any condition based on your data.

6. Order By

Use the ORDER BY to sort the result in ascending or descending order. It sorts the result in ascending order by default, to sort the result in descending order use the keyword DESC.

SELECT column_names FROM table_name ORDER BY column_name statement will be used to sort the result in ascending order by a column.

SELECT column_names FROM table_name ORDER BY column_name DESC statement will be used to sort the result in descending order by a column.

Sorting the data in ascending order using the name column. Let's see the code.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY name"

## getting records from the table
cursor.execute(query)

## fetching all records from the 'cursor' object
records = cursor.fetchall()

## Showing the data
for record in records:
    print(record)
(3, 'Amy', 'amy')
(1, 'Hafeez', 'hafeez')
(5, 'Hennah', 'hennah')
(4, 'Michael', 'michael')
(2, 'Peter', 'peter')

Sorting the data in descending order by name column. Let's see the code.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY name DESC"

## getting records from the table
cursor.execute(query)

## fetching all records from the 'cursor' object
records = cursor.fetchall()

## Showing the data
for record in records:
    print(record)
(2, 'Peter', 'peter')
(4, 'Michael', 'michael')
(5, 'Hennah', 'hennah')
(1, 'Hafeez', 'hafeez')
(3, 'Amy', 'amy')

7. Delete

DELETE keyword is used to delete the records from the table.

DELETE FROM table_name WHERE condition statement is used to delete records. If you don't specify the condition, then all of the records will be deleted.

Let's delete a record from the users table with id 5.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "DELETE FROM users WHERE id = 5"

## executing the query
cursor.execute(query)

## final step to tell the database that we have changed the table data
db.commit()

Checking Whether it is deleted or not by querying all the records from the table.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "SELECT * FROM users"

## getting records from the table
cursor.execute(query)

## fetching all records from the 'cursor' object
records = cursor.fetchall()

## Showing the data
for record in records:
    print(record)
(1, 'Hafeez', 'hafeez')
(2, 'Peter', 'peter')
(3, 'Amy', 'amy')
(4, 'Michael', 'michael')

5th record is deleted.

8. Update

UPDATE keyword is used to update the data of a record or records.

UPDATE table_name SET column_name = new_value WHERE condition statement is used to update the value of a specific row.

Let's update the name of the 1st record from Hafeez to Kareem.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "UPDATE users SET name = 'Kareem' WHERE id = 1"

## executing the query
cursor.execute(query)

## final step to tell the database that we have changed the table data
db.commit()

Checking the data whether it's updated or not by retrieving all records from the data.

import mysql.connector as mysql

db = mysql.connect(
    host = "localhost",
    user = "root",
    passwd = "dbms",
    database = "datacamp"
)

cursor = db.cursor()

## defining the Query
query = "SELECT * FROM users"

## getting records from the table
cursor.execute(query)

## fetching all records from the 'cursor' object
records = cursor.fetchall()

## Showing the data
for record in records:
    print(record)
(1, 'Kareem', 'hafeez')
(2, 'Peter', 'peter')
(3, 'Amy', 'amy')
(4, 'Michael', 'michael')

See, the name of the 1st record was changed.

I didn't talk about all the methods of the database object. You can inspect all the methods using dir() method.

EndNote

Congratulations! Now, you can work with the MySQL database in Python.

If you have any doubts regarding the tutorial mention them in the comment section, I will help you.

Learn more about the MySQL at MySQLs' documentation.

Learn Python from Pythons' official documentation

Want to leave a comment?