Create a vector
Feeling lucky? You better, because this chapter takes you on a trip to the City of Sins, also known as Statisticians Paradise!
Thanks to R and your new dataanalytical skills, you will learn how to uplift your performance at the tables and fire off your career as a professional gambler. This chapter will show how you can easily keep track of your betting progress and how you can do some simple analyses on past actions. Next stop, Vegas Baby... VEGAS!!
Instructions
 Do you still remember what you have learned in the first chapter? Assign the value
"Go!"
to the variablevegas
. Remember: R is case sensitive!
# no pec
# Define the variable vegas
vegas <
# Define the variable vegas
vegas < "Go!"
test_object("vegas", incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign the correct value to `vegas`. Do not forget that R is case sensitive!")
success_msg("Great! Head over to the next exercise.")
Just type the following line in the editor:
vegas < "Go!"
Create a vector (2)
Let us focus first!
On your way from rags to riches, you will make extensive use of vectors. Vectors are onedimension arrays that can hold numeric data, character data, or logical data. In other words, a vector is a simple tool to store data. For example, you can store your daily gains and losses in the casinos.
In R, you create a vector with the combine function c()
. You place the vector elements separated by a comma between the parentheses. For example:
numeric_vector < c(1, 2, 3)
character_vector < c("a", "b", "c")
Once you have created these vectors in R, you can use them to do calculations.
Instructions
Complete the code such that boolean_vector
contains the three elements: TRUE
, FALSE
and TRUE
(in that order).
# no pec
numeric_vector < c(1, 10, 49)
character_vector < c("a", "b", "c")
# Complete the code for boolean_vector
boolean_vector <
numeric_vector < c(1, 10, 49)
character_vector < c("a", "b", "c")
# Complete the code for boolean_vector
boolean_vector < c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE)
msg < "Do not change the code that defined `numeric_vector` and `character_vector`!"
test_object("numeric_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("character_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("boolean_vector",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign the correct values to `boolean_vector`. Use `c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE)`. Don't place quotes around `TRUE` and `FALSE`! Also, make sure to adopt the same order as listed in the instructions.")
success_msg("Perfect! Notice that adding a space behind the commas in the `c()` function improves the readability of your code. Let's practice some more with vector creation in the next exercise.")
Assign c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE)
to the variable boolean_vector
with the <
operator.
Create a vector (3)
After one week in Las Vegas and still zero Ferraris in your garage, you decide that it is time to start using your data analytical superpowers.
Before doing a first analysis, you decide to first collect all the winnings and losses for the last week:
For poker_vector
:
 On Monday you won $140
 Tuesday you lost $50
 Wednesday you won $20
 Thursday you lost $120
 Friday you won $240
For roulette_vector
:
 On Monday you lost $24
 Tuesday you lost $50
 Wednesday you won $100
 Thursday you lost $350
 Friday you won $10
You only played poker and roulette, since there was a delegation of mediums that occupied the craps tables. To be able to use this data in R, you decide to create the variables poker_vector
and roulette_vector
.
Instructions
Assign the winnings/losses for roulette to the variable roulette_vector
.
# Poker winnings from Monday to Friday
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
# Roulette winnings from Monday to Friday
roulette_vector <
# Poker winnings from Monday to Friday
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
# Roulette winnings from Monday to Friday
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
test_object("poker_vector",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign the correct values to `poker_vector`.")
test_object("roulette_vector",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign the correct values to `roulette_vector`. Make sure to adopt the correct order!")
success_msg("Very good! To check out the contents of your vectors, remember that you can always simply type the variable in the console and hit Enter. Proceed to the next exercise!")
To help you with this step, the editor already contains the code for creating poker_vector
. Assign the correct values to roulette_vector
based on the numbers in the assignment. Do not forget that losses are negative numbers.
Naming a vector
As a data analyst, it is important to have a clear view on the data that you are using. Understanding what each element refers to is therefore essential.
In the previous exercise, we created a vector with your winnings over the week. Each vector element refers to a day of the week but it is hard to tell which element belongs to which day. It would be nice if you could show that in the vector itself.
You can give a name to the elements of a vector with the names()
function. Have a look at this example:
some_vector < c("John Doe", "poker player")
names(some_vector) < c("Name", "Profession")
This code first creates a vector some_vector
and then gives the two elements a name. The first element is assigned the name Name
, while the second element is labeled Profession
. Printing the contents to the console yields following output:
Name Profession
"John Doe" "poker player"
Instructions
 The code on the right names the elements in
poker_vector
with the days of the week. Add code to do the same thing forroulette_vector
.
# Poker winnings from Monday to Friday
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
# Roulette winnings from Monday to Friday
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
# Assign days as names of poker_vector
names(poker_vector) < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
# Assign days as names of roulette_vectors
# Poker winnings from Monday to Friday
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
# Roulette winnings from Monday to Friday
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
# Assign days as names of poker_vector
names(poker_vector) < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
# Assign days as names of roulette_vectors
names(roulette_vector) < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
test_object("poker_vector",
incorrect_msg = "Do not change the values inside `poker_vector`; they were already coded for you.")
test_object("roulette_vector",
incorrect_msg = "Do not change the values inside `roulette_vector`; they were already coded for you.")
test_object("poker_vector",
eq_condition = "equal",
incorrect_msg = "Do not change the code that names the elements in `poker_vector`; focus on `roulette_vector`!")
test_object("roulette_vector",
eq_condition = "equal",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign the correct names vector to `roulette_vector`. Use the exact same vector as the one that was used to name `poker_vector`.")
success_msg("Well done! Continue to the next exercise.")
You can use names(roulette_vector)
to set the names of the variable roulette_vector
. Make sure to use the same vector with the days of the week as names. Remember that R is case sensitive!
Naming a vector (2)
If you want to become a good statistician, you have to become lazy. (If you are already lazy, chances are high you are one of those exceptional, naturalborn statistical talents.)
In the previous exercises you probably experienced that it is boring and frustrating to type and retype information such as the days of the week. However, when you look at it from a higher perspective, there is a more efficient way to do this, namely, to assign the days of the week vector to a variable!
Just like you did with your poker and roulette returns, you can also create a variable that contains the days of the week. This way you can use and reuse it.
Instructions
 A variable
days_vector
that contains the days of the week has already been created for you.  Use
days_vector
to set the names ofpoker_vector
androulette_vector
.
# no pec
# Poker winnings from Monday to Friday
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
# Roulette winnings from Monday to Friday
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
# The variable days_vector
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
# Assign the names of the day to roulette_vector and poker_vector
names(poker_vector) <
names(roulette_vector) <
# Poker winnings from Monday to Friday
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
# Roulette winnings from Monday to Friday
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
# The variable days_vector
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
# Assign the names of the day to roulette_vector and poker_vector
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
msg < "Do not changes the predefined variables `poker_vector`, `roulette_vector` or `days_vector`."
test_object("poker_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector",
eq_condition = "equal",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign `days_vector` to the names of `poker_vector`.")
test_object("roulette_vector",
eq_condition = "equal",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign `days_vector` to the names of `roulette_vector`.")
success_msg("Nice one! A word of advice: try to avoid code duplication at all times. Continue to the next exercise and learn how to do arithmetic with vectors!")
You can use names(poker_vector) < days_vector
to set the names of the elements poker_vector
. Do a similar thing for roulette_vector
.
Calculating total winnings
Now that you have the poker and roulette winnings nicely as named vectors, you can start doing some data analytical magic.
You want to find out the following type of information:
 How much has been your overall profit or loss per day of the week?
 Have you lost money over the week in total?
 Are you winning/losing money on poker or on roulette?
To get the answers, you have to do arithmetic calculations on vectors.
It is important to know is that if you sum two vectors in R, it takes the elementwise sum. For example, the following three statements are completely equivalent:
c(1, 2, 3) + c(4, 5, 6)
c(1 + 4, 2 + 5, 3 + 6)
c(5, 7, 9)
You can also do the calculations with variables that represent vectors:
a < c(1, 2, 3)
b < c(4, 5, 6)
c < a + b
Instructions
 Take the sum of the variables
A_vector
andB_vector
and it assign tototal_vector
.  Inspect the result by printing out
total_vector
.
# no pec
A_vector < c(1, 2, 3)
B_vector < c(4, 5, 6)
# Take the sum of A_vector and B_vector
total_vector <
# Print out total_vector
A_vector < c(1, 2, 3)
B_vector < c(4, 5, 6)
# Take the sum of A_vector and B_vector
total_vector < A_vector + B_vector
# Print out total_vector
total_vector
msg < "Do not change the contents of `A_vector` or `B_vector`!"
test_object("A_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("B_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("total_vector", incorrect_msg = "Make sure that `total_vector` contains the sum of `A_vector` and `B_vector`.")
test_output_contains("total_vector", incorrect_msg = "Don't forget to print out `total_vector`! Simply write `total_vector` on a new line.")
success_msg("Good job! Continue to the next exercise.")
Use the +
operator to sum A_vector
and B_vector
. Use <
to assign the result to total_vector
.
Calculating total winnings (2)
Now you understand how R does arithmetic with vectors, it is time to get those Ferraris in your garage! First, you need to understand what the overall profit or loss per day of the week was. The total daily profit is the sum of the profit/loss you realized on poker per day, and the profit/loss you realized on roulette per day.
In R, this is just the sum of roulette_vector
and poker_vector
.
Instructions
Assign to the variable total_daily
how much you won or lost on each day in total (poker and roulette combined).
# no pec
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Assign to total_daily how much you won/lost on each day
total_daily <
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Assign to total_daily how much you won/lost on each day
total_daily < poker_vector + roulette_vector
msg = "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("total_daily", incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign the sum of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector` to `total_daily`.")
success_msg("Great! Continue to the next exercise.")
Similar to the previous exercise, assign the sum of two vectors to a new variable, total_daily
.
Calculating total winnings (3)
Based on the previous analysis, it looks like you had a mix of good and bad days. This is not what your ego expected, and you wonder if there may be a very tiny chance you have lost money over the week in total?
A function that helps you to answer this question is sum()
. It calculates the sum of all elements of a vector. For example, to calculate the total amount of money you have lost/won with poker you do:
total_poker < sum(poker_vector)
Instructions
 Calculate the total amount of money that you have won/lost with roulette and assign to the variable
total_roulette
.  Now that you have the totals for roulette and poker, you can easily calculate
total_week
(which is the sum of all gains and losses of the week).  Print out
total_week
.
# no pec
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Total winnings with poker
total_poker < sum(poker_vector)
# Total winnings with roulette
total_roulette <
# Total winnings overall
total_week <
# Print out total_week
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Total winnings with poker
total_poker < sum(poker_vector)
# Total winnings with roulette
total_roulette < sum(roulette_vector)
# Total winnings overall
total_week < total_roulette + total_poker
# Print out total_week
total_week
msg = "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("total_poker",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign to `total_poker` the sum of the `poker_vector`.")
test_object("total_roulette",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign to `total_roulette` the sum of the `roulette_vector`.")
test_object("total_week",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign to `total_week` the sum of the other two total vectors: `total_roulette` and `total_poker`.")
test_output_contains("total_week", incorrect_msg = "Don't forget to write `total_week` on a new line to print out the variable.")
success_msg("Well done. This is pretty bad news...")
Use the sum()
function to get the total of the roulette_vector
. total_week
is then the sum of roulette_vector
and poker_vector
.
Comparing total winnings
Oops, it seems like you are losing money. Time to rethink and adapt your strategy! This will require some deeper analysis...
After a short brainstorm in your hotel's jacuzzi, you realize that a possible explanation might be that your skills in roulette are not as well developed as your skills in poker. So maybe your total gains in poker are higher (or >
) than in roulette.
Instructions
 Calculate
total_poker
andtotal_roulette
as in the previous exercise. Use thesum()
function twice.  Check if your total gains in poker are higher than for roulette by using a comparison. Simply print out the result of this comparison. What do you conclude, should you focus on roulette or on poker?
# no pec
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Calculate total gains for poker and roulette
total_poker <
total_roulette <
# Check if you realized higher total gains in poker than in roulette
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Calculate total gains for poker and roulette
total_poker < sum(poker_vector)
total_roulette < sum(roulette_vector)
# Check if you realized higher total gains in poker than in roulette
total_poker > total_roulette
msg < "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("total_poker",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign to `total_poker` the sum of the `poker_vector`. Use `sum()`.")
test_object("total_roulette",
incorrect_msg = "Make sure that you assign to `total_roulette` the sum of the `roulette_vector`. Use `sum()`.")
test_output_contains("total_poker > total_roulette",
incorrect_msg = "Have you correctly carried out the comparison? To check if `total_poker` is greater than `total_roulette`, you can use `total_poker > total_roulette`.")
success_msg("Good job! Continue to the next exercise.")
 You partly calculated the answer to this question in the previous exercise already!
 To check if 6 is larger than 5, you type
6 > 5
. This returns a logical value (TRUE
orFALSE
).
Vector selection: the good times
Your hunch seemed to be right. It appears that the poker game is more your cup of tea than roulette.
Another possible route for investigation is your performance at the beginning of the working week compared to the end of it. You did have a couple of Margarita cocktails at the end of the week...
To answer that question, you only want to focus on a selection of the total_vector
. In other words, our goal is to select specific elements of the vector. To select elements of a vector (and later matrices, data frames, ...), you can use square brackets. Between the square brackets, you indicate what elements to select. For example, to select the first element of the vector, you type poker_vector[1]
. To select the second element of the vector, you type poker_vector[2]
, etc. Notice that the first element in a vector has index 1, not 0 as in many other programming languages.
Instructions
Assign the poker results of Wednesday to the variable poker_wednesday
.
# no pec
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Define a new variable based on a selection
poker_wednesday <
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Define a new variable based on a selection
poker_wednesday < poker_vector[3]
msg = "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_wednesday",
undefined_msg = "Please make sure to define a variable `poker_wednesday`.",
incorrect_msg = "It looks like `poker_wednesday` does not contain the correct value of the `poker_vector`.")
success_msg("Great! R also makes it possible to select multiple elements from a vector at once. Learn how in the next exercise!")
Wednesday is the third element of poker_vector
, and can thus be selected with poker_vector[3]
.
Vector selection: the good times (2)
How about analyzing your midweek results?
To select multiple elements from a vector, you can add square brackets at the end of it. You can indicate between the brackets what elements should be selected. For example: suppose you want to select the first and the fifth day of the week: use the vector c(1, 5)
between the square brackets. For example, the code below selects the first and fifth element of poker_vector
:
poker_vector[c(1, 5)]
Instructions
Assign the poker results of Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday to the variable poker_midweek
.
# no pec
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Define a new variable based on a selection
poker_midweek <
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Define a new variable based on a selection
poker_midweek < poker_vector[c(2, 3, 4)]
msg = "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_midweek",
incorrect_msg = "It looks like `poker_midweek` does not contain the correct values from `poker_vector`. You can use the vector `c(2, 3, 4)` inside square brackets.")
success_msg("Well done! Continue to the next exercise to specialize in vector selection some more!");
Use the vector c(2, 3, 4)
between square brackets to select the correct elements of poker_vector
.
Vector selection: the good times (3)
Selecting multiple elements of poker_vector
with c(2, 3, 4)
is not very convenient. Many statisticians are lazy people by nature, so they created an easier way to do this: c(2, 3, 4)
can be abbreviated to2:4
, which generates a vector with all natural numbers from 2 up to 4.
So, another way to find the midweek results is poker_vector[2:4]
. Notice how the vector 2:4
is placed between the square brackets to select element 2 up to 4.
Instructions
Assign to roulette_selection_vector
the roulette results from Tuesday up to Friday; make use of :
if it makes things easier for you.
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Define a new variable based on a selection
roulette_selection_vector <
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Define a new variable based on a selection
roulette_selection_vector < roulette_vector[2:5]
msg = "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_selection_vector",
undefined_msg = "Please make sure to define a variable `roulette_selection_vector`.",
incorrect_msg = "It looks like `roulette_selection_vector` does not contain the correct selection from `roulette_vector`. Make sure to to use the right indexes.")
success_msg("Awesome! The colon operator is extremely useful and very often used in R programming, so remember it well. Proceed to the next exercise.")
Assign a selection of roulette_vector
to roulette_selection_vector
by placing 2:5
between square brackets.
Vector selection: the good times (4)
Another way to tackle the previous exercise is by using the names of the vector elements (Monday, Tuesday, ...) instead of their numeric positions. For example,
poker_vector["Monday"]
will select the first element of poker_vector
since "Monday"
is the name of that first element.
Just like you did in the previous exercise with numerics, you can also use the element names to select multiple elements, for example:
poker_vector[c("Monday","Tuesday")]
Instructions
 Select the first three elements in
poker_vector
by using their names:"Monday"
,"Tuesday"
and"Wednesday"
. Assign the result of the selection topoker_start
.  Calculate the average of the values in
poker_start
with themean()
function. Simply print out the result so you can inspect it.
# no pec
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Select poker results for Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday
poker_start <
# Calculate the average of the elements in poker_start
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Select poker results for Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday
poker_start < poker_vector[c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday")]
# Calculate the average of the elements in poker_start
mean(poker_start)
msg = "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_start",
incorrect_msg = "It looks like `poker_start` does not contain the first three values of `poker_vector`. You can use `c(\"Monday\", \"Tuesday\", \"Wednesday\")` inside square brackets to do this.")
test_output_contains("mean(poker_start)", incorrect_msg = "Have you correctly calculated the average of the values in `poker_start` and printed it out? Use `mean(poker_start)`.")
success_msg("Good job! Apart from subsetting vectors by index or by name, you can also subset vectors by comparison. The next exercises will show you how!");
 You can use
c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday")
inside square brackets to subsetpoker_vector
appropriately.  You can use
mean(poker_start)
to get the mean of the elements inpoker_start
. You do not need the mean of all poker elements, but only of the first three days.
Selection by comparison  Step 1
By making use of comparison operators, we can approach the previous question in a more proactive way.
The (logical) comparison operators known to R are:

<
for less than 
>
for greater than 
<=
for less than or equal to 
>=
for greater than or equal to 
==
for equal to each other 
!=
not equal to each other
As seen in the previous chapter, stating 6 > 5
returns TRUE
. The nice thing about R is that you can use these comparison operators also on vectors. For example:
> c(4, 5, 6) > 5
[1] FALSE FALSE TRUE
This command tests for every element of the vector if the condition stated by the comparison operator is TRUE
or FALSE
.
Instructions
 Check which elements in
poker_vector
are positive (i.e. > 0) and assign this toselection_vector
.  Print out
selection_vector
so you can inspect it. The printout tells you whether you won (TRUE
) or lost (FALSE
) any money for each day.
# no pec
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Which days did you make money on poker?
selection_vector <
# Print out selection_vector
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Which days did you make money on poker?
selection_vector < poker_vector > 0
# Print out selection_vector
selection_vector
msg < "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("selection_vector", incorrect_msg = "It looks like `selection_vector` does not contain the correct result. Remember that R uses element wise operations for vectors.")
test_output_contains("selection_vector", incorrect_msg = "Don't forget to print out `selection_vector` by writing the variable name on a new line.")
success_msg("Great!")
In order to check for which days your poker gains are positive, R should check for each element of poker_vector
whether it is larger than zero. some_vector > 0
is the way to tell R what you are after.
Selection by comparison  Step 2
Working with comparisons will make your data analytical life easier. Instead of selecting a subset of days to investigate yourself (like before), you can simply ask R to return only those days where you realized a positive return for poker.
In the previous exercises you used selection_vector < poker_vector > 0
to find the days on which you had a positive poker return. Now, you would like to know not only the days on which you won, but also how much you won on those days.
You can select the desired elements, by putting selection_vector
between the square brackets that follow poker_vector
:
poker_vector[selection_vector]
R knows what to do when you pass a logical vector in square brackets: it will only select the elements that correspond to TRUE
in selection_vector
.
Instructions
Use selection_vector
in square brackets to assign the amounts that you won on the profitable days to the variable poker_winning_days
.
# no pec
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Which days did you make money on poker?
selection_vector < poker_vector > 0
# Select from poker_vector these days
poker_winning_days <
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Which days did you make money on poker?
selection_vector < poker_vector > 0
# Select from poker_vector these days
poker_winning_days < poker_vector[selection_vector]
msg = "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("selection_vector", incorrect_msg = "Don't change the way `selection_vector` is calculated.")
test_object("poker_winning_days",
incorrect_msg = "It looks like `poker_winning_days` does not contain the correct result. Use `poker_vector[selection_vector]`.")
success_msg("Good job! Continue to the next exercise.")
Use poker_vector[selection_vector]
to select the desired elements from poker_vector
, and assign the result to poker_winning_days
.
Advanced selection
Just like you did for poker, you also want to know those days where you realized a positive return for roulette.
Instructions
 Create the variable
selection_vector
, this time to see if you made profit with roulette for different days.  Assign the amounts that you made on the days that you ended positively for roulette to the variable
roulette_winning_days
. This vector thus contains the positive winnings ofroulette_vector
.
# no pec
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Which days did you make money on roulette?
selection_vector <
# Select from roulette_vector these days
roulette_winning_days <
# Poker and roulette winnings from Monday to Friday:
poker_vector < c(140, 50, 20, 120, 240)
roulette_vector < c(24, 50, 100, 350, 10)
days_vector < c("Monday", "Tuesday", "Wednesday", "Thursday", "Friday")
names(poker_vector) < days_vector
names(roulette_vector) < days_vector
# Which days did you make money on roulette?
selection_vector < roulette_vector > 0
# Select from roulette_vector these days
roulette_winning_days < roulette_vector[selection_vector]
msg = "Do not change anything about the definition and naming of `poker_vector` and `roulette_vector`."
test_object("days_vector", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("poker_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("roulette_vector", eq_condition = "equal", undefined_msg = msg, incorrect_msg = msg)
test_object("selection_vector",
incorrect_msg = "It looks like `selection_vector` does not contain the correct result. Use `roulette_vector > 0`.")
test_object("roulette_winning_days",
incorrect_msg = "It looks like `roulette_winning_days` does not contain the correct result. Use `roulette_vector[selection_vector]`.")
success_msg("Great! This exercise concludes the chapter on vectors. The next chapter will introduce you to the twodimensional version of vectors: matrices.")
Once you've correctly calculated selection_vector
, you can again use roulette_vector[selection_vector]
to select the positive results from roulette_vector
.